With dirmngr using the standard-resolver, "gpg --receive-keys" gives a "Not enabled" error, which is not only not helpful, it is apparently misleading. Hunting through the code, it appears this is explicitly triggered with the combination of standard-resolver and Tor. It should not be necessary to look in the code for this information. (Just point me to the doc I missed reading, if that's the case.) If this is the only use of this particular error, please reword it to be more helpful. If not, please consider created a separate, more useful, error for this case.
Even changing to "recursive-resolver" (is there any real documentation about the different resolvers available?) I now get "ERR 167772360 Buffer too short <Dirmngr>" which is also not very helpful. I get this with either resolver, with or without Tor running, but I'll leave that for a separate issue, if I can't resolve it myself.
I'm on Gentoo, with gnupg compiled from source, if it matters, and I'll be happy to provide any additional info/logs if it will be of any use.